Ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope
This equipment uses an electron beam that is finely focused to about 0.1 nanometers (one millionth of a centimeter) to scan the top of the sample in order to directly observe the atoms in the sample based on the intensity of the electron beam transmitted by the sample.


Van der Waals force
This is the force that arises between atoms, molecules, and ions as a result of fluctuations in the distribution of electrons around the nucleus.