Electromagnetic waves with waves shorter than radio waves and longer than red visible light rays are infrared rays. When infrared is irradiated on a matter and the transmitted or reflected light is studied, it is possible to obtain information about the bonding of the elements in the matter.
Interfacial phase
Although polycrystalline matter consists of many crystal grains, the interfacial phase refers to the phase (a domain that has a certain structure) that is formed in the narrow spaces in between these grains. In polycrystalline matter, the structure of the interfacial phase is often influenced by mechanical properties.
Inverse spin-hall effect
This is the phenomenon wherein electromotive force is generated in a direction perpendicular to the spin current. This is caused by the interaction between the electron spin and the orbit, which scatter electrons with an upward spin and electrons with a downward spin in opposite directions. This is important in spintronics as a phenomenon that connects spin information and electrical information.


K (Kelvin)
This is a unit of measure for temperature. Its relationship to Celsius degrees, a commonly used unit of measure for temperature, is expressed in the following formula.


Lanthanum titanate
This is a compound of titanium, lanthanum, and oxygen, and is expressed by the chemical formula LaTiOx (X: Oxygen composition). Lanthanum titanate that has lithium added to it is used as material for the creation of lithium batteries (electrolytes).
Light-emitting diode
This refers to a semiconductor device that emits light by applying an electric current to the junction of two semiconductors, such as p-type or n-type. The color of the light emitted changes depending on the material of the semiconductor. It is also known as LED.
Logic integrated circuit
A logic circuit in a computer is a circuit that converts (computes) input information into combinations of the two values of “0” and “1,” outputs this data, and processes it. In short, it is a circuit that returns actions and results in response to operations. A logic integrated circuit is built by placing (integrating) as many of these logic circuits as possible in as small a space as possible. Combining a large number of these logic integrated circuits creates the processor that serves as the “heart” of a computer, enabling the completion of complex computations (information processing) within a short period of time.