M

Magneto-optic effect
This refers to the phenomenon wherein the polarization state of transmitted light and reflected light changes as a result of the magnetic field that is applied to matter or the magnetized state of matter.
Magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM)
This is a new technology that uses the spin of the electrons of magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) as a memory device, and utilizes the magnetized state of spin to record computer information. By controlling the direction of spin, it changes the resistance value of the device, and matches the size of the resistance value to the digital signals “0” and “1.” As spin information is non-volatile in an MRAM, information in the memory is saved even when the computer is powered off. For this reason, the technology contributes to significant savings in standby power and helps to achieve energy conservation.
Metal oxide
A compound obtained through the bonding of a metal atom and an oxygen atom. As the constituent elements and structure are greatly varied, they exhibit a wide range of physical properties. Its application in next-generation electron elements is much anticipated.
Microfabrication technology
Microfabrication technology is the placement of micro-electrodes, etc. on a substrate during the production of an integrated circuit. In recent years, it has also been applied to the field of biotechnology.
Molecular beam epitaxy
This is one of the methods able to produce a high-quality single-crystal thin film. Several evaporation sources (materials) placed in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber are evaporated through the application of heat and other means and are deposited on the opposite single-crystal substrate. This enables the production of a high-quality single-crystal thin film that is controlled at the atomic level.

N

Nanowire
One nanometer is one billionth of a meter. While there are no strict definitions, thin wire structures with a diameter ranging from around several nanometers to one micrometer (=1,000 nanometers) are known as nanowires. A wide variety of nanowires are being discovered and developed, and there are metal (gold, silver, nickel, palladium, etc.) as well as semiconductor (silicon, CdS, ZnO, GaN, germanium, etc.) nanowires. Active research is also being conducted for carbon nanotubes, polymer nanofibers, etc.
Neutral beam
When the positive or negative ions that exist in plasma are accelerated by an electric field, the collision of the atoms and molecules, electrons, and walls brings about an exchange of charges, and neutralization. At this point the momentum energy is stored and a directed neutral beam is generated. Professor Kenji Kangawa was the first to create an ultra-efficient, low-energy, high-density neutral beam by prompting the release of an electric charge through the acceleration of the negative ions of fluorine and chlorine, using direct voltage. In this neutral beam, ultraviolet rays and electric charges from the plasma do not reach the substrate at all, hence plasma damage is under complete control.

O

Organic semiconductor
An organic semiconductor is an organic material that has the properties of a semiconductor. Active research is being conducted for the application of such material for use in organic EL displays and solar cells.

P

Perovskite oxide
Expressed by the chemical formula ABO3, perovskite oxides have a structure wherein the void in the three-dimensional network of BO6 oxygen octahedron is filled by A site atoms. For example, SrTiO3 is a cubical crystal with a perfect perovskite structure, where the AO layer and BO2 layer overlap each other alternately.
Phase transformation
Phase transformation occurs when a thermodynamically-stable phase is subjected to changes in physical parameters, such as temperature or pressure, and transforms into another stable phase. It is also known as phase transition. Changes between the gaseous, liquid, and solid states are famous examples, but the ways in which phase transformation occurs and its conditions differ depending on the matter involved.
Photocatalyst
A photocatalyst is a material that causes a chemical reaction in the matter with which it comes in contact through the application of light, although it does not undergo any changes itself. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a well-known example of a photocatalyst.
Photoelectron spectroscopy
When ultraviolet rays are irradiated on the surface of crystals, electrons from the matter are emitted through an external photoelectric effect. Photoelectron spectroscopy is a method of experiment that measures the energy and momentum of these photoelectrons, and by doing so allows one to observe the state of the electrons in the matter; in short, the electronic state of the matter. The resolution of photoelectron spectroscopy has improved tremendously in recent times, making it possible today to also observe electrons that have become superconducting electrons.
Plasma damage
The damage that is incurred through the plasma process in the production of semiconductor devices poses a serious problem. This damage can be categorized into the three following types: 1) physical damage; 2) damage caused by the accumulation of electric charge; and 3) damage caused by synchrotron radiation. Physical damage refers to damage in the form of defects, etc. in the substrate, caused by the collision of ions that hold the energy that enters the substrate. Damage caused by the accumulation of electric charge refers to the dielectric breakdown of gate insulation film, etc., which is extremely important to MOS transistors, as a result of the accumulation on the insulation film of electric charges (positive ions, electrons) that enter the substrate from the plasma. Damage caused by synchrotron radiation refers to the situation wherein ultraviolet rays, X-rays, or other forms of radiation with short a wavelength that enter the substrate produce an electron-hole pair in the silicon dioxide film that is deposited on the substrate, resulting in the deterioration of insulation properties.
Plasmonics field
This is a field of research that seeks to develop application technology based on the interaction between metal nanostructures and light through the active use of surface plasmon. Along with spintronics, it is expected to become a next-generation electronics technology.
Plasticity
When force is applied to a matter to change its form, if the matter does not return to its original form but remains in the changed form even after the force is removed, this property is known as plasticity.
Porous material (nanoporous material)
Porous material has numerous pores that are connected randomly inside the matter to create a sponge-like structure.