E

Electric field
An electric field is the space wherein the electric force that is generated by electric charges works. For example, in a scanning tunneling microscope, an electric field is generated in the space between the sample and the metal needle (probe).
Electrochemical measurement
This measurement method measures the amount, etc. of a substance by prompting a response from the measured substance on an electrode. Commercially-available blood glucose meters utilize the electrochemical measurement method.
Electron energy loss spectroscope
This equipment analyzes the constituent atoms in matter and its chemical state by measuring the energy that is lost through interaction with the atoms when an electron beam passes through the sample.
Electron hole
When a crystal is lacking in electrons, the “hole” with the missing electron behaves as if it were a particle with a positive electric current. This is known as the electron hole, or simply the hole.
Embryonic stem cells (ES cells)
Embryonic stem cells are stem cell lines made from embryos in the blastocyst stage, which is an early developmental stage in animals. Embryonic stem cells have the property of differentiation/pluripotency, enabling them to differentiate into all tissues, and therefore are expected to be able to fulfill a wide range of applications.
Energy dispersive X-ray analysis
This is an elemental analysis method that detects the fluorescent X-rays generated when an electron beam, etc. is irradiated on a body and then studies the elements and concentration that make up that body based on the intensity of this energy.
Energy gap
In semiconductors, of which silicon is a representative example, an energy gap exists between the highest energy level occupied by electrons and the lowest energy level not occupied by electrons. This energy gap is an important parameter in controlling semiconductors through an electric field effect.
Epitaxial growth
Epitaxial growth is one of the technologies for growing thin-film crystal. Crystal growth is carried out on top of crystals that serve as the substrate, and grow such that the crystals are aligned with the crystal surfaces on the underlying substrate. This is known as homo-epitaxial growth in cases where the substrate and the thin film are of the same substance and as tero-epitaxial growth in cases where they are different substances. Crystal growth methods include the molecular beam epitaxy method, the organometallic vapor phase method, and the liquid-phase epitaxy method. For epitaxial growth to occur, it is necessary to select crystals with an approximately equal lattice constant, and to use materials with a similar coefficient of expansion arising from heat.
Excitor
An excitor is a complex particle that is formed by creating pairs through electrical interaction between electrons and electron holes. It plays an important role in the optical properties of matter.
External photoelectric effect
This refers to the phenomenon wherein electrons are emitted from the surface of matter when ultraviolet rays or X-rays enter the matter. The electrons emitted from the matter are called photoelectrons. This phenomenon was explained theoretically in 1905 through Einstein’s photon hypothesis. Einstein received the Nobel Prize for this achievement.

F

Ferromagnetic resonance
This refers to the phenomenon that arises when a high-frequency electromagnetic field (microwaves) is added to ferromagnetic matter. The ferromagnetic matter absorbs the energy of the high-frequency magnetic field, and the magnetization continuously performs precession movements.
Fractional quantum Hall effect
In a situation where a strong magnetic field is applied to two-dimensionally sealed electrons, the electrical resistance (Hall resistance) in the direction perpendicular to the electric current and magnetic field becomes a constant value that is not dependent upon the material, and becomes several times the value that uses the fundamental constant of quantum mechanics. This phenomenon is known as the fractional quantum Hall effect.

G

Gas atomization method
This is an industrial manufacturing method for making molten metal or alloy into a fine powder. Gas jets are ejected at supersonic speed from numerous nozzles placed around the flow of a molten metal or alloy that has been heated to above its melting point, and the shock waves from the jets grind down the flow of molten metal or alloy to create droplets. The droplets formed in this way coagulate as they fall and become powder. Although the size and shape of the powder obtained varies according to the surface tension and viscosity of the molten metal or alloy and the speed of the gas jet, the difference in composition between the particles is extremely small. The large amount of powder manufactured through this process is further subjected to press molding or sintering to create parts of complex shapes, and is applied to a wide range of uses.
Graphene
This refers to the planar thin film that is created when carbon atoms bond with one another. It takes on a hexagonal lattice structure that resembles the shape of a honeycomb, has a thickness of just one carbon atom, and is transparent and exhibits properties such as excellent electrical conductivity and elasticity. For these reasons, it is thought to function as an outstanding material for semiconductors and solar cells.
Graphite intercalation electrons
This refers to electrons that are distributed between layers of graphite crystals and can move about freely for the most part. The discovery of the superconductivity of graphite intercalation compounds is considered to be closely related to these intercalation electrons.

H

Heterogeneous (solid) catalyst
A catalyst is a substance that accelerates the speed of a specific chemical reaction. A catalyst that can be used directly as a solid is known as a heterogeneous catalyst.
High angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM)
Among the scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) methods, HAADF-STEM is a method wherein the inelastic scattering of electrons at a high angle through thermal diffuse scattering caused by lattice vibration is received in an annular detector. The integrated intensity of these electrons is measured as a function of the probe position, and the intensity is then expressed in the form of an image.
Hydrogen storage material
Hydrogen storage material is material that stores hydrogen gas, used in fuel cell vehicles and in fuel cells used at home, in its solid state. Research is being conducted across the world on various types of materials for hydrogen storage, including material that stores hydrogen by incorporating it into the gaps of a metal grid and material that stores hydrogen in the state of a hydride through chemical bonding between hydrogen and other elements.